James River Plantations: Explore Historic Mansions in Virginia

On its twisting journey across southeastern Virginia to Chesapeake Bay, the James River flows with subdued yet stately grace through a landscape that would still be recognizable to the families who built their plantation-style homes along its banks in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Shirley Plantation, Charles City, Virginia
A perfectly proportioned Georgian Colonial mansion is the masterwork of Shirley Plantation, Charles City, Virginia.

Route Details

Length: About 75 miles, plus side trips.

When to go: Pleasant year-round.

Nearby attractions: Busch Gardens, a theme park and re-created European villages, southeast of Williamsburg via Rte. 60. Colonial National Historical Park and Jamestown Settlement, in Jamestown.

Not to be missed: Historic Garden Week, when many private properties in Virginia-the James River area included-are open to the public. Held the last full week in April. For information, contact the Garden Club of Virginia; tel. 804-644-7776.

Further information: Virginia Tourism Corporation, 901 East Byrd St., Richmond, VA 23219; tel. 800-932-5827,www.virgina.org.

On its twisting journey across southeastern Virginia to Chesapeake Bay, the James River flows with subdued yet stately grace through a landscape that would still be recognizable to the families who built their plantation-style homes along its banks in the 17th and 18th centuries. Today their grand houses still stand as dramatic summations testifying to a vanished era, and Rte. 5, the road that links them, serves as a virtual time line through that sometimes turbulent past.

1. Richmond
Nowadays modern skyscrapers cast their reflections on the James River in Richmond, where the streets were originally laid out in 1737. Down through the centuries, those streets have witnessed more than their share of history. The British plundered Richmond during the Revolutionary War, and as capital of the Confederacy during the Civil War, it was bitterly contested. Many buildings were destroyed by fire when Richmond was evacuated as Union troops approached in 1865. Fortunately, the state capitol, a graceful 18th-century building designed by Thomas Jefferson, survived, as did many other historic structures, with the result that the city enjoys a pleasing mix of the old and the new.

For a journey into the past, take a drive on Rte. 5, which begins near the capitol and heads to the southeast out of the city. Before long, in Charles City County, the 20th century seems to melt away, replaced by an agricultural landscape — corn, winter wheat, soybeans, and cotton are the principal crops — that has neither traffic lights nor large towns to interfere with its idyllic calm. Weaving through this rural region, Rte. 5 leads to plantation houses that sit, one after another, like a string of pearls along the banks of the James River. Shirley, the first of them, is located off Rte. 5 about 18 miles from Richmond.

2. Shirley
Motorists approach the mansion here by driving down Shirley Plantation Road, which becomes a dirt lane that ends at a cluster of 18th-century brick outbuildings, called dependencies. In earlier times guests arrived by boat along the James River, where they looked up to see the front of this perfectly proportioned Georgian Colonial house. The plantation itself was begun in 1613, making it the oldest in Virginia, and to this day its 700 acres are sown with seeds each spring.

Owned by the same family for 10 generations (Robert E. Lee was a member of the clan), the house has an outstanding portrait collection and a stunning three-story staircase that seems to float unsupported in the hallway. Also noteworthy is the wooden pineapple — a symbol of hospitality — perched atop its mansard roof.

3. Berkeley
Found in the Union troops that bivouacked on the grounds of the elegant brick manor house at Berkeley during the Civil War was a young Scottish drummer boy; some 45 years later he returned to purchase the property, which by then had become an uninhabitable ruin surrounded only by forlorn, neglected lawns.

After decades of restoration, the birthplace of President William Henry Harrison, which was completed in 1726, regained its standing as one of America’s most distinguished landmarks. The rooms feature handsome woodwork and are furnished with a magnificent collection of 18th-century antiques.

The grounds, at their best in late spring, also have been nursed back to health, with roses, azaleas, daffodils, and dogwoods growing on five beautifully groomed terraces that stairstep to the James River.

4. Westover
One of the finest Georgian-style houses in America, Westover, unfortunately, opens its famous pineapple-topped door to visitors only during Garden Week in April. The rest of the year, you’ll have to be content with admiring its magnificent exterior as you stroll around the landscaped grounds. They boast 150-year-old tulip trees, a formal garden, and a sweep of lawn that unfurls like a carpet down to the ever-present river.

5. Sherwood Forest Plantation
Three miles beyond Charles City’s 1730s courthouse, which still serves as the civic heart of the community, is America’s longest frame house- at 301 feet- and forms the centerpiece of this plantation. Once owned by U.S. President John Tyler and still occupied by Tyler family members today, the white clapboard house at Sherwood Forest can be seen on guided tours by appointment only. (To see the house, call 804-829-5377.) The grounds — 29 acres of lawns, terraced gardens, and woods containing more than 80 kinds of trees — also are open to the public. Included among the outbuildings are the servant’s quarters, a 17th-century tobacco barn, and President Tyler’s law office.

6. Colonial Parkway
After crossing a swing-span bridge over the Chickahominy River, Rte. 5 meets Rte. 614, which takes you to Jamestown Island. A five-mile auto tour loops through the island’s marshes and the pine forests where the English began their first permanent settlement in America.

Colonial Parkway, a leisurely 23-mile drive threading amid dogwood and redbud trees, links Jamestown to Williamsburg and Yorktown. The parkway is punctuated with scenic turnouts and historical markers. At Colonial Williamsburg visitors can stroll the streets of the superbly re-created 18th-century capital of Virginia. At Yorktown they will be walking in the footsteps of George Washington, whose army triumphed here in the last major battle of the Revolution, thus assuring American independence.

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